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NLP之「表象系统」(12/06/11) (已有:1496人访问)


关键词:表象系统 感官 语言文字 表达 亲和力

 

  我曾经为朋友们分享过一篇关于萨提亚的应对姿态,其中一部分是展现在我们生活当中每个人所应对事物的一种求生存的表现,使朋友们明白和理解自我与他人的不同之处。以至于更好的觉察自我,完善自我。那什么又是表象系统呢?

  在我们的生活中,我们通常是以觉(看到的画面)、觉(听到的声音)、觉(感受到感觉)、觉(闻到的气味)、觉(尝到的味道)来经验和收集世界上的信息,在NLP中称为「表象系统」也就是我们的感官系统。

  NLP发现我们与外界联系基本分为三种模式,即视觉型(Visual)、听觉型(Auditory)和触觉型(Kinesthetic),简称V.A.K。视觉型的人用看来经验世界、听觉型的人用听来经验世界、触觉型的人用感觉来经验世界。可能此时有些朋友们会好奇,这些感官在我们日常生活当中都是有在用的啊,为什么会分为这三种类型?确实这些感官是在我们生活当中每天都在使用,可是我们每个人都有倾向和喜好于某种感官的使用。

  由于存在感官的倾向和使用,使得我们在生活、学习、工作、娱乐等方面产生了一些与众不同之处。

  当我们能够了解自己惯用的感官与他人的不同之处时,从另一个角度来看我们也就了解了人与人之间的不同之处。

  这也是我分享此篇文章的目的之一,接下来,我们来了解下惯用不同感官类型的人的一些特征:

视觉型(Visual

  特点:他们习惯先用双眼去看和接收外在信息,眼睛的学习和处理能力最快,所以他们喜欢颜色鲜明、外观漂亮的人事物;常坐不安定,小动作多,能够在同一时间做几件事;在乎事情的重点,不在乎事情的细节,喜欢清楚、简单的表达重点和在一开始就直入话题;喜欢节奏快的事物。

  身形/姿势:大多数情况下视觉形的人都偏瘦,当然也有胖的。他们头多向上昂、行动快捷,说话时手的动作多且通常手活动在胸部以上。

  呼吸:呼吸较浅,常止于胸腔上半部分。

  语调/语速:语调简单而单一,语速快。

  语言文字:常使用和表达的文字有,我看到、清晰、模糊、漂亮、悦目、焦点、速度、彩色、灿烂、观点、观察、图案、出现、凝望、光明、朦胧、明白、明显地、鲜艳夺目、多彩多姿等等。

  

听觉型(Auditory

  特点:他们习惯先用耳朵去听和接收信息,所以在许多时候他们的耳朵非常灵敏,十分重视宁静的环境及声音的质量,同时他们善于文字处理和在乎事情的细节,做事情非常注重程序和步骤,喜欢有条不紊的进行;善于歌唱和聆听。

  身形/姿势:他们不会像视觉型那样偏瘦也不会像触觉型那样强壮和有力,他们的身形可能会丰满而松垮,当然他们也存在于每种身材当中。说话时可能会将手靠近或托住耳朵和嘴附近。

  呼吸:呼吸平稳、有规律和有节奏,在胸腔与腹部之间。

  语调/语速:语调抑扬顿挫、高低快慢十分有节奏感,语速中等。

  语言文字:我听到、聆听、响亮、谈谈、听懂、刺耳、沟通、宁静、韵律、耳边风、无话可说、值得一听、清楚、清晰、询问、讨论、悦耳等等

 

触觉型(Kinesthetic

  特点:触觉型包含了触觉、嗅觉、味觉,他们惯于先用感觉去感受和接收信息,所以在许多时候他们对自我的感觉非常的注重;在乎与人之间的关系、感觉及重要意义;言语中常提及感受或经历;

  身形/姿势:因为视觉型和听觉型的人对触碰感的要求远没有触觉型的人高,所以相比之下触觉型的人较为强壮和结实。

  呼吸:呼吸慢而深沉,会用到胸部以下及腹部。

  语调/语速:语调低沉,语速慢。

  语言文字:我感觉、压迫、气氛、把握、安全、危险、激动、口福、自然、压力、匆忙、行动、难受、谨慎、顺利、开心、快乐、幸福、成功、支持、一点都不怕、趁热打铁、兴奋、冰冷、紧张、等等。

  在此补充一句,虽然上述所写内容都有科学依据,但是它不是绝对的。NLP说没有任何信念在任何情况下都有效,包括我现在所说的这句,所以凡事没有绝对!

 

视觉的解读线索

  在通过上述的了解之后,我相信朋友们对表象系统和三种类型的人有了一定的了解和辨别能力,下面我再为朋友们多介绍一个通过观察对方眼球的转动方向,来发现对方的惯用模式。

  在与人聊天或在其它情境下,视觉型的人,在回忆事物时眼球转动的方向为左上,因为此刻他(她)所提取的过往经验储存在这个位置,即放置图像资料的位置,此时他(她)会看到一些内在的画面。而当他(她)在想像或创造一些事物时则会在右上,因为此刻他(她)在构建和想像一些画面或图像。

  听觉型的人,在回忆事物时眼球转动的方向为左中,因为此刻他(她)所提取的一些过往经验储存在这个位置,即放置声音资料的位置,此时他(她)会听到一些内在的声音。而当他(她)在想像或创造一些事物时则会在右中。假如他(她)的眼球转动在左下角时,代表此刻他(她)正在进行一些自我对话。

  触觉型的人,无论他们是在回忆还是在创造或想像一些事物时,他们那一刻的眼球转动都是在右下角。

 


 

(注:此图为面对我们并习惯于右手的人,倘若是习惯左手的人则相反)

 

  在此我很高兴朋友们又多学会了一招,那了解了这么多对我们还有什么用呢?在日常生活当中我们又能干些什么呢?我要说的是这能够增强我们与人之间的关系和亲和力

  在生活中,我们每个人都喜欢与自己相同的人交流与连接,可有时候为什么我们说的话别人会听不懂呢?会不爱听呢?我们先来看一个例子:

  情景一

  小南:Tel——小北,明天我们去看电影吧。

  小北:好啊,正好我也想去感受下电影院的音响效果。

  小南:电影院中细语——你看男主角好帅一个哦。

  小北:是啊,这电影院的音响效果就是不一样,这男主角的声音和背景音乐真好听。

  小南:我是说他的样子。

  小北:哦,是啊长的还不赖。

  小南:沉默中...

 

  通过情景一我们发现到了什么呢?相信朋友们在经过之前我对表象系统的一个概述之后,已能够轻松的通过这段语言文字的对话了解到,在情景一中小南是一个视觉型的人,而小北是一个听觉型的人。他们之间的交流,一个是在表达视觉信息,而另一个却是在表达听觉的信息,两人的交流完全不在同一频道,所以最后以沉默收场。

 

  情景二

  小南:Tel——小北,明天我们去看(视觉)电影吧。

  小北:好啊,在电影院看大屏幕(视觉)一定很爽,在加上电影院的音响效果那简直太棒了。

  小南:电影院中细语——你看男主角好帅一个哦。

  小北:是啊,他真的是很有型(视觉),这衣服的色彩(视觉)搭配再加上故事情节和电影院的音响效果这场电影确实值得看。

  小南:嘿嘿,我叫你来看这场电影没有错吧。

  小北:你真有眼光(视觉)

  小南:开心中...

  

  在情景二中,通过小南第一句话的表达,在对于学过NLP表象系统的小北来说,他觉察到了一些信息,虽然他惯用听觉型,可是他做出了漂亮的回应。最终两人都非常开心的享受完了整场电影。

  虽然这二个情景对话非常的简单和简短,可在我们生活中常见而又无处不在,假如我们能把握每一个当下的情景,那相信在我们与人之间的关系和融洽度上绝对会上升到另一个高度。  

  在这次分享中我给朋友们介绍了我认为在表象系统当中的一些关键点和实用的部分,虽然还有许多内容可以写,可是我认为就仅仅这一部分,你、我都需要更多的实践和练习,从而促使自己在与人交流和沟通中关系更加融洽和亲密。

  当然朋友们如果感觉还需要学会更多的实用心理学知识和内容,或想接受更加专业的指导和培训使得自己的生命升华和改变的更为迅速,我真诚的邀请你在收入稳定的情况下,报读我们学院的国际NLP专业执行师课程,因为它会让你受用终生!到时候幸福的不仅仅是你还有你的家人。

 

联系方式:杨长懿 13411177809

2011.9.12 13:05



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